بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

Wednesday, 8 November 2017

ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE

I START WITH THE GREATEST NAME OF ALLAH (SWT) WHO IS THE MOST COMPASSIONATE AND THE MOST MERCIFUL.
There are two styles which encompass a wide range of both religious and secular from the foundation of Islam till today.
While all such have unique characteristics like it's geometrically patterned ornaments,
it does scotch some influence from Roman, Persian, Indian architectures as Islam was present in all regions especially from Near East and North Africa to East Asia.

Types of Islamic Architecture

There are four types of Islamic Architecture which are given under-mentioned;
1) The Mosque
2) The Tomb
3) The Palace
4) The Fort

From the above-mentioned terminologies, Islamic Architecture is taken and used for other buildings viz fountains, public baths, and other domestic architectures.
There are different symbolic views of some scholars on Islamic architecture which have been consistently criticized by historians for lacking historical evidence.





Fatimid architecture:-



Influences

If we through light on Islamic architectures we can find a lot of examples. Some are given;

Fatimid architecture:-

This architecture is present in Egypt follow Tulunid techniques and used like materials. In Cario, their first congregational Mosque was Al-Azhar mosque which was founded in (1969-1973), which together was its adjacent institution of higher learning (al-Azhar University) which later on became spiritual center for Ismaili Shia.

There are  few other buildings dating from the time of Hazrat Mohammad (SAW), but one instance is the Jawatha Mosque* located in Saudi Arabia. The Rashidun caliphate (632-661) was the first state to use Islamic architecture.

The next one is Umayyad caliphate (661-750) so they collected elements of Byzantine architecture  and Sassanid architecture, but Umayyad architecture introduced new combinations of these western and eastern styles.

Fatimid architecture:-


The Abbasid Architecture:-


The Abbasid Architecture of the Abbasid caliphate (750-1513) was strongly influenced by Sassanid architecture, and later by Central Asian styles.

Contemporary Muslim architects

There are many Muslim architects which are very famous in this field. Some of their names are given below;

1) Nabih Youssef
2) Zaha Hadid
3) Nayyar Ali Dada
4) Mubashra aIlyas
5) Muzharl Islam
6) Kamran Afshar Naderi
7) Bashir ulhaq

 
Contemporary Muslim architects

Regional Styles

There are many regional styles like Ottoman, Persian and so on.

1) OTTOMAN:-
The best plan of Ottoman architecture was originally inspired in part by the example of Hagia Sophia in Constantinople/ Istanbul, llkhanid works like Oljeitu Tomb. The most famous of Ottoman architects was Mimar Sinan, who lived for approximately one hundred years and designed several hundreds of buildings, of which two of the most important are Suleymaniye Mosque in Istanbul and Selimiya Mosque in Edirne.


2) PERSIAN:-
The Islamic conquest of Persia in the 7th Century availed the Muslims with the vast wealth of architectural innovation developed over the centuries.
In Persia and Central Asia, the Tahirids, Salmonids, Ghaznavids and Ghurids struggled for power in the 10th centuries. Great cities were built, such as Nishapur and Ghazani (Afghanistan), and the construction of great Mosque of Isfahan.

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Written by:  Syed Ihtisham Bin Syed Moulana Khawaja din 

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